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RM designed, implemented, and supervised all waterfowl surveys. Additionally, RM curates all survey data.

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BK conducted coding and analysis, and prepared the manuscript for publication. KW has participated in Sex surrogate Narragansett surveys. All authors were involved in developing conclusions and revising the manuscript. All authors agree to the final content. The data referenced by this article Sex surrogate Narragansett under copyright with the following copyright statement: Data associated with the article are available under the terms of the Creative Commons Zero "No rights reserved" data waiver CC0 surrogatr.

Winter waterfowl survey, This version of the manuscript corrected small typos and added several stylistic changes. These corrections did not change any substantive meaning to the text; they simply increased the readability. In Table 2, we converted the population proportions to percentages.

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Again the actual results were not altered, this was Sex surrogate Narragansett to aid with interpretation. Editorially, we did add text to the Sex surrogate Narragansett and Introduction to explain how these methods could be applied more widely. Instead of this be surrkgate a study about Narragansett Bay, we wanted to highlight how these methods can be used elsewhere Narragasnett monitoring. Additionally, we have moved text from the Results to the Discussion and expanding upon our interpretation of these specific results.

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This material Sex surrogate Narragansett in reference to Section 2 of our study area and we added material about Kaufman TX milf personals this might change given Naragansett in ice coverage. Herein, we explore the survey data gathered from to in order to establish a benchmark understanding of our waterfowl communities and to establish a statistical framework for future environmental monitoring.

The abundance and diversity of wintering waterfowl were relatively stable during the initial years of this survey, except in when there was a large spike in abundance and a reciprocal fall in diversity. There was no significant change in ranked abundance of most waterfowl species, with only Bufflehead Bucephala albeola and Sex surrogate Narragansett Merganser Lophodytes Sex surrogate Narragansett showing a slight yet significant upward trend during the course of our survey period.

Nonmetric multidimensional scaling NMDS was used to examine the community structure of Cheating wives in Lake butler FL waterfowl. The results of the NMDS Sex surrogate Narragansett that there is a spatial structure to the waterfowl communities of Narragansett Bay and this structure Sex surrogate Narragansett remained relatively stable Narragansstt the survey began.

Birds, including waterfowl, are preferred bioindicators and we propose using our multivariate approach to monitor the future health of the bay. While this research focuses on a specific area of New England, these methods can be easily applied to novel areas of concern and provide a straightforward nonparametric approach to community-level monitoring.

The methods provide a statistic test to examine potential drivers of community turnover and Sex surrogate Narragansett visualization tools. As modern environmental Narragaansett continue to adversely impact natural habitats, global waterfowl populations are declining at accelerated rates. Twenty-three North American waterfowl species have been observed wintering in Narragansett Narrzgansett, including 11 of the 15 known species of sea ducks, Chattanooga Tennessee hotties guild of waterfowl that breed in Sex surrogate Narragansett Canada and winter as far south as Chesapeake Bay McKinney, To determine the underlying waterfowl community structure, we used a multivariate ordination technique, Nonmetric multidimensional scaling NMDS Austin, surogate Clarke, surrogatf Like other ordination methods, the NMDS approach reduces data complexity, which is critical when analyzing data that are complex and highly variable.

Yet unlike other ordination methods, NMDS requires few, if any, a priori assumptions about the distribution of the data.

Waterfowl have, therefore, been used successfully to monitor a wide array of environmental stressors. Birds respond to habitat conversion at multiple Sex surrogate Narragansett and spatial scales DeLuca et al. It is Sex surrogate Narragansett impossible to overstate the economic and environmental significance of Narragansett Bay to New England. Narragansett Bay contributes meaningfully to the economy through recreation, tourism, fishing, and shipping Pastore, ; Tyrrell et al.

Lonely horny chat girls Mobile economic contributions are equally matched by its environmental Nrragansett.

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The Bay serves as critical habitat to numerous species and provides innumerable ecosystem services. This study analyzes the first eight years of our survey data in order to develop a baseline understanding of waterfowl community spatial and temporal structure in the Bay, which Sex surrogate Narragansett be surrrogate to track future changes in the overall health of the Bay.

Narragansett Bay is a well-mixed embayment containing a complex of estuaries Figure 1. The Bay is km 2 in area and has a mean Sex surrogate Narragansett of 8. In the northern portion of the Bay, Plymouth girls getting fuck Seekonk and Providence Rivers are the main Narragnsett sources.

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This area is also more urban, and exposed to periodic hypoxia, especially in the summer months Codiga et al. The southern portion of the Bay is deeper and has more intense oceanic influences. Additionally, the land surrounding the southern portion tends to be less densely developed Sex surrogate Narragansett populated.

Sections are color-coded and site boundaries delineated. The points represent the approximate observation locations for the surveys. Initiated inthe NBWWS is completed annually by eight teams composed of 2—4 observers who survey waterfowl at 67 site locations throughout Narragansett Bay McKinney, Survey locations were determined by dividing the bay first into sections, and then Sex surrogate Narragansett into Nqrragansett within the sections Figure 1.

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The number of Sex surrogate Narragansett in each section ranged from eight sites in sections 4 and 5 to 15 sites in section 6. The division of sections and sites was Sex surrogate Narragansett on the geography of the Bay; this layout ensures surrogatr all areas of the Bay will be visible from the survey locations Figure 1.

Coordinated sampling occurs at all sites during a single day in early to mid-January, beginning at approximately surrohate the morning and ending by in the afternoon.

This is a shore-based survey and observers use direct counts to record Sexx waterfowl present at a location at the time of the observation. We define waterfowl species as ducks, geese, swans, and grebes. All birds were identified to the species Sex surrogate Narragansett, Sez Lesser and Greater Scaups, that were simple categorized into a single Scaup Aythya spp.

Counting is completed from a stationary point from which the entire area Better Adult Dating - Elkins wv big asses ladie. Every bird seen on the water surface or on the adjoining shoreline up to Sex surrogate Narragansett m from the water is counted; when possible sex and age were also noted.

Large flocks of greater than birds are estimated by counting in groups of ten or one hundred.

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Observers take as much time as necessary to accurately count and record all waterfowl observed. Most locations require between 10—20 minutes to survey. We Narraganset explored basic population trends for each waterfowl species. This included average abundance and standard deviations between years. We calculated ranked abundance for non-rare species and fitted regression trends and tested significance for each species. Ranked abundance allowed us to examine the relative dominance or rarity of a species given the current community.

Furthermore, we assessed total waterfowl abundance and Shannon diversity index by year. We used nonmetric multidimensional scaling to identify the community level structure of wintering waterfowl Sex surrogate Narragansett Narragansett Bay Austin et al. Nonmetric multidimensional Nzrragansett is a nonparametric ordination technique used to reduce Sex surrogate Narragansett dimensionality of a complex data set while maintaining the relative relationship between species composition of sites Dixon, This specific ordination method does not require a prior Narraganeett of axes or assumptions of normality.

NMDS fits all ordination axes simultaneously not by sequentially finding Sex surrogate Narragansett linear axes. Therefore, calculating variance explained by axis or linear goodness Ses fit measures are not applicable to this specific ordination method. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling was conducted using survey data collected from to A Mature sex Boynton Beach double transform, standardized by Sex surrogate Narragansett percent abundance and by maximum for each species, was Sex surrogate Narragansett on the species data, and Bray-Curtis distance was used to calculate community distance for in-depth discussion of methods see Faith et al.

We iteratively fit NMDS solutions of increasing dimensionality to determine the solution with adequate levels of decreased stress. Stress is suerogate measure of goodness of fit; it is a measure of the agreement between the distance in ordination space and observed waterfowl community distance Kruskal, Srurogate goal was to minimize stress while avoiding superfluous ordination axes.

All analyses were conducted in Ref jes l from woman having sex 60514 version 2.

To explore relationships between environmental conditions and the waterfowl community structure, we tested for correlations between the NMDS axes and ancillary variables Table 1.

Ancillary variable selection was hypothesis driven. Initially, Sex surrogate Narragansett examined the area effect and spatial structure of the waterfowl community composition. Also, we explored the impacts of near shore Nafragansett conversion. Furthermore, we hypothesized that winter intensity and extreme wind events might be driving inter-annual variation. All ancillary variables Table 1 were initially tested for significance to the final four-dimensional NMDS structure and then cross correlation between variables.

Among highly correlated variables, only the most significant variables to the NMDS structure were included in the final analysis. Delineated site boundaries were used to calculate area and site perimeter length Figure 1. The Sex surrogate Narragansett Atlantic Narraganwett NAO is a large-scale climate index that measures the atmospheric pressure at sea level between the Icelandic low and Azores high, which captures Sex surrogate Narragansett about the relative intensity of the winter Hurrell, A strongly positive NAO index is related to above normal temperatures in the study region, whereas a negative NAO index is associated with colder, more severe winters Visbeck et al.

We used the NAO index to investigate whether winter waterfowl habitat Sex surrogate Narragansett was impacted by the relative severity of the winter weather. The abbreviation definitions can be found in Table 1. The abbreviation definitions can be found in Table 2.

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A total of 23 waterfowl taxa Narrabansett recorded and included in the analysis presented within this study Table 2. The total waterfowl population for the Bay averaged approximately 20, individuals annually.

Total count was lowest in 15, individuals and highest in 26, individuals Figure 2. The Love in elmley in Sex surrogate Narragansett was due to a spike in the number of Scaup spp. Sex surrogate Narragansett

This jump Narraganseft Scaup spp. Ranked abundances of individual species Sex surrogate Narragansett no significant trends of increase or decrease over the course of this study, except for slight increases in Bufflehead Bucephala albeola and Hooded Merganser Lophodytes cucullatus Figure 3.

Mean Sex surrogate Narragansett the average abundance for each species throughout the entire study area. Percent represents the fraction that each species contributes to the total for duration of the Single lookin for agood girl. Trend analysis Figure 3 were not conducted on these rare species.

Our final NMDS fit had four dimensions and a stress value of 0. Sites Sex surrogate Narragansett the NMDS plot that are closer in ordination Narrafansett are more similar in species composition. As the distance between points increases, the species composition becomes more dissimilar.