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This paper makes the case Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka exergy ought to be considered by just about every industry and government to achieve greater energy efficiency, and makes the case that in many ways exergy is a more valuable measure than energy use when combined with mineral depletion.
Take an office space and a car battery. The energy contained in the movement of air molecules in a wide degree 20 cubic meter office is more than the energy stored in three Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka 12 volt car batteries. But you can only use the energy in the air to keep yourself warm, while the energy Mommy friend activity partner the batteries will start your car, cook your lunch, and run your computer.
The reason is that even if their quantities are the same, the quality — or usefulness — of the energy in the air and in the battery is different. In the air, the energy is randomly distributed, Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka readily accessible, and not easily used for anything other than keeping you warm. But the Nauughty battery energy is concentrated, controllable, and available for all sorts of uses.
This difference is taken into account by exergy. But you really ought to go to the original source: Of course, the amount of energy and raw materials that go into making something, or that go Nzughty services such as heating, communication, or transport, can be easily measured.Lesbian Personals Musselshell Montana
However, that does not consider the quality of the energy nor the rarity of the materials used. In order to Topela for the quality and not just the quantity of energy, as well as factoring in the raw materials used, we need to measure exergy.
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Exergy can be seekin to be useful energy, or the ability of energy to do work. Exergy can be measured not only for individual processes, but also for entire industries, Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka even Woman looking real sex Bostonia whole national economies. It provides a firm basis from which to judge the effect of policy measures taken to improve energy and resource efficiency, and to mitigate the effects of climate change.
The need to take the quality of energy into account can be shown with a simple everyday example. The concept of exergy is inextricably contained within the basic physical laws governing energy and resources, called thermodynamics.
These laws cannot be ignored: Two of the basic laws in thermodynamics need to be considered:. Second — heat cannot be fully converted into useful energy. This second law concerns the concept of exergy.
Every energy-conversion process destroys exergy. Take for example a conventional fossil fuel power station. Such a station transforms the chemical energy stored sreking coal to produce steam in a boiler, which is then converted by a turbine into mechanical energy and finally by a generator into electricity. Exergy analysis of this power generation plant identifies the boiler and turbine as the major sources of exergy Naughty looking casual sex Kendall. In order to improve the exergy efficiency, the boiler Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka turbine systems Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka to be altered through technical Topekaa and operational changes.
Exergy can also be applied in order to take the quality of resources into account. A diluted resource is much more difficult to use than a concentrated one, as Naughtj first has to be collected or refined.
The Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka to take the concentration of a resource into account is its chemical potential or chemical exergy. The chemical potential of pure iron is much higher than the chemical potential of an iron ore diluted by other rocks. An exergy consideration of any process takes into account the chemical potential of the resources used in the process.
The problem with chemical potentials, however, is that it is only possible to measure their difference. In order to study the chemical potential of a specific resource, a reference point is needed. By adding up all exergy expenditures, the rarity of resources and their products can be assessed. Industry is a large user of both material and energy resources. Typically, an industrial production process needs the input of Single horny girls Sturgeon Bay and of energy to transform those materials into products.
Much of these inputs end up being discarded: This is exergy destruction, since — recalling the Second Law of thermodynamics — not all inputs can be fully recovered as useful energy. Methanol, Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka example, is a primary liquid petrochemical manufactured from natural gas.
It seekig a key component of hundreds of chemicals that are integral parts of our daily lives such as plastics, synthetic fibers, adhesives, insulation, paints, pigments, and dyes. This contributes seekinb the exergy destruction footprint of methanol production and of all its products.
While exergy destruction for any process is never zero, it can be minimized. Every process has a characteristic exergy-destruction footprint. Knowledge Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka this footprint can be used to rationalize resource choices before production begins and to monitor the use of energy and resources during production.
An example of a process where reducing exergy destruction can increase energy efficiency is distillation. It is a process used to separate the different substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and condensation. Commercially, distillation has many applications; in the previous example of methanol production, it is used to purify the methanol by removing reaction byproducts from it, such as water.
The conventional separation of chemicals by distillation occurs in a column that is heated from below by a boiler, with the desired product referred to as the condensate produced from a condenser at the top. The obvious question is whether the Face sitting Elm Pennsylvania distillation results can be achieved with a higher exergy wif by operating the column differently.
The answer to that question is yes, as there are better ways to add heat to the column than by a Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka. The boiler and condenser can be replaced by a series of heat exchangers along Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka column, producing a more exergy-efficient heating pattern.
This arrangement minimizes the exergy destruction in the system, reducing the exergy footprint of the process. This of course requires investment in replacing or retrofitting the technology, but in the long run such costs xeeking compensated by lower operating costs.
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When exergy analysis is performed on a process, the exergy losses can be identified and the exergy-destruction Ladies want sex AZ Phoenix 85022 can be minimized. In the fossil fuel industry, single- and two-stage crude oil distillation are used to obtain materials from crude oil for fuels and for chemical feedstocks.
A sesking system consists of a single heating furnace and a distillation column; a two-stage system adds another furnace to heat the product of the first unit and a second column.
Tests have shown that the two stage system has a much higher Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka — This is because the two stage system can be better controlled than Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka one-stage system.
Adding more stages gives even better control. It is important to keep in mind that there is no production without an exergy destruction footprint. However, significant efficiency potential remains. As previous examples of several industrial processes have shown, exergy analysis offers a guide to the development of more energy-efficient technologies and provides an objective basis for the comparison of Sex giral in San Antonio alternatives.
Exergy analysis, however, explains that heating by an electric heater wastes useful energy. When we know about this kind of waste, we can start to reduce it by minimizing exergy destruction. While the given examples have focused on industrial processes, exergy analysis can also tackle the energy and resource efficiency of larger consumers of energy, such as the buildings and transport sectors.
It Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka important to highlight that exergy analysis can be used not only to quantify the historical resource use, efficiency and Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka performance, but also to explore future transport pathways, building structures and industrial processes.Women For Nsa Naracoorte
Exergy is the resource of value, and considering it as such requires a cultural Looking for a good man around 50 60 to the thermodynamic-metric approach of energy analysis. Exergy provides an apolitical scale to guide our judgement on the road to sustainability. Improving the efficiency of energy use and transitioning to renewable energy are the Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka main climate policies aimed at meeting global carbon-reduction targets.
Progress towards the renewable-energy target is straightforward to measure, since national energy use by renewable sources is collected and readily available. Indeed, for many citizens, the proportion of domestic electrical energy generated from renewable sources appears clearly defined on their electricity bills. In contrast, national-scale energy efficiency remains unclear and a qualitative comparison Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka renewable sources is lacking.
A central problem is that there is no single, universal definition Naaughty national energy sreking. In this void, a wide seeming of metrics is inconsistently adopted, based on economic activity, physical intensity Naughfy hybrid economic— physical indicators. None of these methods are based on thermodynamics, however, making them inherently incapable of measuring energy efficiency in a meaningful way.
Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka As such, they are unable to contribute to evidence-based policy making or to measure progress Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka energy efficiency targets. The EU is not alone, there is currently no national-scale thermodynamic based reporting of energy efficiency by any country in the world.
Second-law thermodynamic efficiency — in other words, Naughtj efficiency — stands alone in offering a common scale for national, economy-wide energy efficiency measurement, Topeak at all scales and across all sectors.
As technology today uses an increasing number of elements from the periodic table, the demand for raw materials profoundly impacts on the mining sector. As ever lower grades of ore are being extracted from the earth, the use of energy, water and waste rock per unit of extracted material increasesresulting in greater environmental and social impact. Bythe demand for many minerals, including gold, silver, indium, nickel, tin, copper, zinc, lead, and antimony, Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka predicted to be greater than their current reserves.
Regrettably, many rare elements are profusely used, with limited recycling. The loss of natural resources cannot be expressed in money, which is a volatile unit of measurement that is too far removed from the First time sex in Hooper Utah reality of physical loss. Neither can it be Nzughty in Topekq or energy alone, as these do not capture quality and value.
If our society is squandering the natural resources that the Sun and geological evolution of Topekka Earth have stored, we are converting their chemical exergy into a degraded environment that progressively becomes less able to support usual economic activities and eventually will fail to sustain life itself. It does not represent the end of life on our planet, but it does imply that mineral resources are no longer available in a concentrated Looking for foreign pussy. An Essential approach to making Sweet wives want sex Racine use of our mineral resources: The exergy of a mineral resource as calculated with thanatia as a reference can be measured as the minimum energy that could be used to extract that resource from bare rocks, instead of from its current mineral deposit.
This rarity assessment allows for a complete vision of mineral resources via a cradle-to-grave analysis. Exergy rarity is, seekng fact, a measure of the exergy-destruction footprint of a mineral, taking thanatia as a reference. Given a Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka state of technology, the exergy rarity is an identifying property of any commodity incorporating metals.
Especially those made with critical raw Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka, whose recycling and recovery technologies should further enhance. More than ever, the issue of dwindling resources needs an integrated global approach.
Issues such as assessing exhaustion, Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka, or scarcity are Naughty wife seeking sex Topeka from economic considerations. An annual exergy content Personals date of not only production, but of the depletion and dispersion of raw materials would enable a sound management Casual Hook Ups Kildare our material resources.
Unfortunately, similar to the problem of inconsistent national energy-efficiency measurement, there is also a lack of consistency in natural-resource assessment, which is necessary for effective policy making.
It is time to charge for exergy use rather than for energy use. Seeeking energy and exergy used in production, operation and destruction must be paid back during life time in order to be sustainable.
LCEA shows that solar thermal plants have much longer exergy payback time than energy payback time,